Chemical Engineering Universities in Pakistan

Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with physical science and life sciences relating them with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. In addition, modern chemical engineers also deal with extracting valuable materials and related techniques which are often essential to fields such as nanotechnology, fuel cells and biomedical engineering.
Within chemical engineering, two broad subgroups are usually classified. These include;

1) Design, manufacture, and operation of chemical plants and machinery in industrial and chemical processes. Engineers related to this subgroup are called Chemical ‘Process’ Engineers.
2) Development of new or adapted substances for products that include but are not limited to foods, beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceutical ingredients, among many other products. Engineers that supervise their production are termed Chemical ‘Product’ Engineers.

According to a definition from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, “Chemical Engineers develop economic ways of using materials and energy” as opposed to chemists who are more interested in the basic composition of materials. Chemical engineers use chemistry and engineering to convert raw materials into useful products, such as medicine, petrochemicals and plastics. They are sometimes also involved in waste management and environmental sciences

Chemical Engineering Universities in Pakistan

Below is a list of universities recognized by PEC for Chemical Engineering taken from

• School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Islamabad (National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad)
• COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad (Lahore Campus)
• Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Lahore
• NFC Institute of Engineering & Fertilizer Research, Faisalabad
• NFC Institute of Engineering and Technological Training, Multan
• University of Engineering and Technology
• University of Gujrat, Gujrat
• Dawood College of Engineering and Technology, Karachi Campus
• Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro
• NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi
• Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta

Job Scope

Although not a very popular field in Pakistan, chemical engineering has vast avenues in research and production abroad. A chemical engineer may be involved in industrial research where they are tasked in designing and performing experiments and acquiring data to create better ways of production, controlling pollution, conserving resources and increasing the safety of these processes. They may be involved in designing and in the maintenance of plants as a project engineer. In this field, the chemical engineer usually makes the process more efficient by selecting plant equipment and the optimum method of production to minimize costs and increase profitability. Major local industries in Pakistan that recruit chemical engineers include Engro, P&G, Unilever, Fauji Fertilizers, Fatima Fertilizers, Pepsico etc.

Main Subjects

Chemical Engineering includes the following major subjects.

• Applied Chemistry –practical use of chemistry theory
• Particle Technology – handling of particulate materials
• Engineering Materials – Study of properties of raw materials
• Thermodynamics – Study of heat and its interaction with energy
• Chemical Process Industries – Deals with chemical reactions employed in industries
• Mechanical Separations – Separating mixtures with mechanical screening
• Energy Engineering – Energy efficiency and energy management
• Chemical Reaction Engineering – Controlling chemical reaction processes
• Biochemical Engineering – Study of chemical reactions in living organisms
• Industrial Instrumentation – Study of measurement through tooling

25 Interesting Facts Part 2

25 Interesting Facts Part 2 is the extended version of 25 Interesting Facts.

26. Google is actually the common name for a number with a million zeros.
27. Switching letters is called spoonerism. For example, saying jag of Flapan,

instead of flag of Japan.
28. It cost 7 million dollars to build the Titanic and 200 million to make a film

about it.
29. The attachment of the human skin to muscles is what causes dimples.
30. There are 1,792 steps to the top of the Eiffel Tower.

31. The sound you hear when you crack your knuckles is actually the sound of

nitrogen gas bubbles bursting.

32. Human hair and fingernails continue to grow after death.

33. It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body.

34. The plastic things on the end of shoelaces are called aglets.

35. Most soccer players run 7 miles in a game.

36. The only part of the body that has no blood supply is the cornea in the eye. It

takes in oxygen directly from the air.

37. Every day 200 million couples make love, 400,000 babies are born, and 140,000

people die.

38. In most watch advertisements the time displayed on the watch is 10:10 because

then the arms frame the brand of the watch (and make it look like it
is smiling).

39. Colgate faced big obstacle marketing toothpaste in Spanish speaking countries.

Colgate translates into the command “go hang yourself.”

40. The only 2 animals that can see behind itself without turning its head are the

rabbit and the parrot.

41. Intelligent people have more zinc and copper in their hair.

42. The average person laughs 13 times a day.

43. Do you know the names of the three wise monkeys? They are:Mizaru(See no evil),

Mikazaru(Hear no evil), and Mazaru(Speak no evil)

44. Women blink nearly twice as much as men.

45. German Shepherds bite humans more than any other breed of dog.

46. Large kangaroos cover more than 30 feet with each jump.

47. Whip makes a cracking sound because its tip moves faster than the speed of


48. Two animal rights protesters were protesting at the cruelty of sending pigs to a

slaughterhouse in Bonn. Suddenly the pigs, all two thousand of them, escaped through

a broken fence and stampeded, trampling the two hapless protesters to death.

49. If a statue in the park of a person on a horse has both front legs in the air,

the person died in battle; if the horse has one front leg in the air, the person

died as a result of wounds received in battle; if the horse has all four legs on the

ground, the person died of natural cause.

50. The human heart creates enough pressure while pumping to squirt blood 30 feet!!

Web Training And Development Short Courses

Optimum Solutions brings the finest web training and development short courses solutions. These short courses are not only enhancing the capability but also give the useful skills. The main purpose is to introduce these courses to boost the concept of self-employment in Pakistan. Now a days the situations of Pakistan’s economy not so good and this tend to the frustration of youngsters who want to earn a handsome income to support their family. So regarding these scenario Optimum Solutions make these short courses which are practically implement but also gives you the chance to be a part of money community. Check out these courses and their short details.

1. Money Web

Money Web course specially designed for fulfill the needs to utilizes the web income resources. These courses are brainstorming the ideas to do something new or bigger by using small efforts. This course will open a new horizon of the web to Pakistani Youngsters. I will recommend every person who even not want the web income but to look something new or different join this course.

2. SEO + Blogging:

This course designed in the scenario SEO and blogging popularity. We merge these two big trainings into one package. This will not only fulfill your blogging passion or needs to earn money but also makes you expert in the search engine optimization. We will recommend this course to all website owners, blogger and newbies who want to start a successful blogging.

3.  Web Hosting

Web Hosting industry in Pakistan rapidly growing. So this course trains you to develop your own web hosting company. You can sell your own web hosting services without any hectic. All the thoeries with practical’s and market secrets are covers in this course. This short course never let you regret if you are serious to do a web hosting business in Pakistan or throughout the world.

4. WordPress

WordPress is a content management system web application, which is using to build websites and blogs. This course makes you able to build websites and blogs without any programming. We will recommend this course who wants to startup their websites and blogs development freelancing services.

5. Web Designing

As the name said it is a website designing course. This short website designing course gives you a glance overview regarding website development. As in Pakistan’s market institute this course differ than others because it covers the practical market approach. This course is having the case studies of live websites which are developed by Optimum Solutions platform.

6. Advance Web

This short course is having the tools of dynamic programming and database handling. Advance Web give a stroke on practical programming approach which will lead you a right direction to make sensible applications for web. This short course will recommended who want to do serious web programming and clear the concepts of programming.

Here  are our training and development short courses link you can find more to the point details of the courses.


Nobel Prize of Computer Science

Microsoft’s researcher wins the “Noble Prize” of computer science.The Noble Prize of computer science is given to Leslie Lamport who is the guy behind the scene.Turing award is the highest honor in computer science.Leslie Lamport is an American computer scientist who is currently working at Microsoft as a researcher.He is known for his remarkable work in Distributed systems and also the initial developer of the document preparation system a.k.a Latex.He is man behind “the Bakery Algorithm” which is basically a new solution to Dijkstra’s Concurrent Programming Problem.

In 2013, Lamport becomes the fifth scientist from Microsoft Research to have won Nobel Prize of Computer Science which is called Turing award.The award itself considered the highest honor in computer science.The prize money awarded to Lamport is about $250,000.Intel and Google both contributed in the award money.

You can further read about this guy at HERE

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Download Wireshark Free

By this tutorial you are able to Download Wireshark Free and you can easily know the features provided by this software.By downloading Wireshark Free you can easily perform any action described in the features.


Wireshark is the world’s First network protocol analyzer. It lets you see what’s happening on your network at a very abstract level. It is the connecting standard across many industries and educational institutions.


Wireshark is a network packet analyzer. A network packet analyzer will try to capture network packets and tries to display that packet data as detailed as possible.

Wireshark Features

  • Available for UNIX and Windows.
  • Capture live packet data from a network interface.
  • Import packets from text files containing hex dumps of packet data.
  • Display packets with very detailed protocol information.
  • Save packet data captured.
  • Filter packets on many criteria
  • ……and much more !

Click Here to download wireshark free

Software Export figures of Pakistan

According to a survey and data released on the research of Software Export figures of Pakistan, only 17 out of 140 software companies share their annual export figures with the relevant authorities which is the major cause for lower than official export figures. The country’s export of software and IT-enabled services rose to $116 million in 2006-07 from $72 million a year before, against the target of $108 million set by PSEB. The IT industry emerged the fastest growing sector a few years ago. According to the data released by the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), the country received foreign remittances of $64 million till February 2007, as against $42 million received in July-Feb 2005-06.

As a side note, the freelance IT economy in Pakistan is on the rise also. Based on unofficial figures obtained through private discussions with various online freelancing outfits, Pakistan based freelancers ranked in anywhere from US $50 million to US $70 million in 2012-13.Unfortunately only 10%-20% of this gets into Pakistan as export revenue and the rest either stays outside or doesn’t get recognized as IT export revenue.

IBA students are working on a study with assistance from the Overseas Investors Chamber of Commerce and Industry’s IT committee. The report, to be published in a few months, underlines that by 2020, Pakistan can easily have a million jobs and exports of $10 billion in the IT industry


Networking – Computer Science Questions and Answers

The objective of this article (Networking – Computer Science Questions and Answers) is to provide you a rough guess about the questions that are usually asked in networking-computer science and also the very important and very basic questions asked in Interview. So no matter you are a student or a professional you can gain benefit from our uploaded documents.

Q.1 Consider an HTTP client that wants to retrieve a Web document at a given URL. The IP address of the HTTP server is initially unknown. What transport and application-layer protocols besides HTTP are needed in this scenario?

Ans:- DNS and HTTP for application layer protocol
UDP for DNS and TCP for HTTP in transport layer protocol

Q.2. Obtain the HTTP/1.1 specification (RFC 2616). Answer the following questions:

a. Explain the mechanism used for signaling between the client and server to indicate that a persistent connection is being closed. Can the client, the server, or both signal the close of a connection?

Ans:- Typically, the mechanism used for signaling between client and server is Acknowledgement with closing information on it, Yes both can signal to close the connection.

b. What encryption services are provided by HTTP?

Ans:- There are no encryption services provided by HTTP. Because HTTP is not secure and now a day’s every individual is preferring HTTPS over HTTP.The reason behind this is that HTTPS is much more secure than HTTP and it also provide encryption services.

c. Can a client open three or more simultaneous connections with a given server?

Ans:- Yes, a client can open as many connections as it wanted with a given server.

d. Either a server or a client may close a transport connection between them if either one detects the connection has been idle for some time. Is it possible that one side starts closing a connection while the other side is transmitting data via this connection? Explain.

Ans:- Yes, it is possible that one side i.e. client or server closes a connection while the other is transmitting data. This is because the client and server knows each other state after they have received data from each other. If a connection is idle by any side , it could be closed even though a message is transmitted from the opposite side and it would result in closing.

Q.3.Suppose within your Web browser you click on a link to obtain a Web page.
The IP address for the associated URL is not cached in your local host, so a DNS lookup is necessary to obtain the IP address. Suppose that n DNS servers are visited before your host receives the IP address from DNS; the successive visits incur an RTT of RTT1, . . ., RTTn. Further suppose that the Web page associated with the link contains exactly one object, consisting of a small amount of HTML text. Let RTT0 denote the RTT between the local host and the server containing the object. Assuming zero transmission time of the object, how much time elapses from when the client clicks on the link until the client receives the object?

Ans:- 2RTT0+(RTT1+…+RTT_n)+RTT

2RTT0 = 1st for requesting the connection and 2nd for requesting the address or URL
(RTT1+…+RTT_n) = Address is not copied into our cache and not in our local DNS, so all the n DNS servers visited adds up
RTT = This RTT is to fetch our object because we have exactly 1 object on the given URL, i.e. some HTML text.

Q.4. How does SMTP mark the end of a message body? How about HTTP? Can HTTP use the same method as SMTP to mark the end of a message body? Explain.

Ans:- SMTP uses a period to mark the end of a message body. HTTp simply uses entire message length in header part known as “Content Length Header Field”.
No, HTTP cannot use the method used by SMTP, because HTTP message uses  binary  data, whereas in SMTP, the message body should be in 7-bit ASCII format.

Q5. a. What is a whois database?

Ans:- WHOIS is a public database it allows us to find out information about a specific domain name. It’s just like a registrar where anyone can find out who registered it, who the registrar is, and who you can contact about the domain name.

b. Use various whois databases on the Internet to obtain the names of two DNS servers. Indicate which whois databases you used.

Ans:- Whois database I am using is
c. Use nslookup on your local host to send DNS queries to three DNS servers: your local DNS server and the two DNS servers you found in part (b). Try querying for Type A, NS, and MX reports. Summarize your findings.

d. Use nslookup to find a Web server that has multiple IP addresses. Does the Web server of your institution (school or company) have multiple IP addresses?

Ans:- The web server I am using is because it is a huge site and will have multiple IP addresses.
Yes, the web server of our university ( have multiple IP addresses.

e. Use the ARIN whois database to determine the IP address range used by your university?

Ans:- – (Calculated using

f. Describe how an attacker can use whois databases and the nslookup tool to perform reconnaissance on an institution before launching an attack?

Ans:-  The attacker use whois database to look for DNS server they want to attack,  and there is one more possibility that they can install themselves as a DNS server for our site and can attack on our site.

g. Discuss why whois databases should be publicly available?

Ans:- It should be publically available because they are the just like references when one have to evaluate who is the registrant of this domain name. It’s  already publically available and one can also set a privacy.

Q.6. Suppose Bob joins a Bit Torrent torrent, but he does not want to upload any data to any other peers (so called free-riding).
a. Bob claims that he can receive a complete copy of the file that is shared by the swarm. Is Bob’s claim possible? Why or why not?

Ans:- Yes, Bob’s claim is possible because he refuses to upload any data but his seeders randomly unchoke him and his torrent file begins to download, but on a low speed because he is not uploading any data so according to TIT FOR TAT rule his downloading will be slow but at the end he will be able to receive the complete copy of that file.

b. Bob further claims that he can further make his “free-riding” more efficient by using a collection of multiple computers (with distinct IP addresses) in the computer lab in his department. How can he do that?

Ans:- Yes, Bob can further make his free-riding more efficient by simply making the systems in computer lab his seeders. The file he wants to download is on the lab’s systems and he is downloading from these computers, this is more efficient because the lab’s computers are not downloading this file they are just uploading this file to a Single system.

Q.7. Can you configure your browser to open multiple simultaneous connections to a Web site? What are the advantages and  disadvantages of having a large number of simultaneous TCP connections?

Ans:- Yes a browser can open multiple TCP connections simultaneously with the help of extra tab, there is no such configuration required to open parallel TCP connections. The number of TCP connection user can open at a time depends upon browser per browser. Modern browser support 5 to 10 parallel TCP connections simultaneously.


ü  Reduced Latency on requests
ü  Congestion Control because of long lasting connections
ü  Pipelining allows requests made by a client with a minimum elapsed time


ü  Poor performance or performance degradation due to keeping connections open long after requests
ü  Less scalable in case of traffic burst all web connections will be busy by few clients and each user have to wait for response time that is coming from server

Q.8. UDP and TCP use 1s complement for their checksums. Suppose you have the following three 8-bit bytes: 01010011, 01100110, 01110100. What is the 1s complement of the sum of these 8-bit bytes? (Note that although UDP and TCP use 16-bit words in computing the checksum, for this problem you are
being asked to consider 8-bit sums.) Show all work. Why is it that UDP takes the 1s complement of the sum; that is, why not just use the sum? With the 1s complement scheme, how does the receiver detect errors? Is it possible that a 1-bit error will go undetected? How about a 2-bit error?

Ans:-               01010011  +   01100110  =  10111001
10111001  +  01110100  =  00101110

One’s complement of final answer  = 11010001

To detect errors, the receiver adds the four words (the three original words and the checksum). If the sum contains a zero, the receiver knows there has been an error. All one-bit errors will be detected, but two-bit errors can be undetected (e.g., if the last digit of the first word is converted to a 0 and the last digit of the second word is converted to a 1) .

Q.9. Is it possible for an application to enjoy reliable data transfer even when the application runs over UDP? If so, how?

Ans:- Yes it can. By sending sequence numbers with the packet you can rearrange the packets on the target machine and send them to the application in order. UDP has checksum, and understands if data reached is true or not, of course, it is under application level. You only get something true or nothing. You can make a private protocol (means a protocol by yourself) to obtain reliability which is built on UDP, then it will be reliable.

Q.10. Suppose that a Web server runs in Host C on port 80. Suppose this Web server uses persistent connections, and is currently receiving requests from two different Hosts, A and B. Are all of the requests being sent through the same socket at Host C? If they are being passed through different sockets, do both of the sockets have port 80? Discuss and explain.

Ans:-  Port 80 is used only for the initial connection. As soon as a host connects, the server hands off the session to a free port and the session are established using that port. This keeps port 80 free for new incoming requests.